Electro Convulsive therapies had been in use since the 1940's in Bangalore, and at various places in India; soon after their use in Italy, Europe, UK and USA. This machine here was manufactured by ELECTRONA Corporation, Malleswaram, Bangalore. Post-Independence, there were restrictions on transfer of electrical and electronic technology to India. Since defence labs like BEL and HAL and the IISc expertise existed locally, an attempt was made to create a ‘local’ ECT machine, which proved to be inexpensive, safe, sturdy and popular. These machines were ‘best-sellers’ and used all across India.